In the business world, networking products have become a crucial component of business operations. It does not matter whether it is connecting devices within an organization or enabling communication across the globe, but the factually, networking products have become the backbone of modern-day communication. There is huge importance of networking products to maintaining communication and collaboration between employees, departments, and even entire organizations. Further, it allows businesses to share resources, store data and applications in the cloud, and access information from anywhere at any time (What Is a Computer Network? Definition, Objectives, Components, Types, and Best Practices – Spiceworks, 2022). Infect, it is true to say that without networking products, many business operations would come to a halt and impossible to run. This paper identifies four networking product companies and describe at least two of their products/services, while also highlighting one related to network security.


1. Cisco Systems

The first company discuss in this paper is Cisco Systems, which was established in 1984. It is considered a well-known leader in the field of enterprise networking as well as communication solutions.  One of Cisco’s strengths is their ability to innovate and adapt to market trends as with the passage of time they consistently develop new products, solutions, and services to meet the ever-evolving challenges faced by businesses in the connected world. Apart from innovate and adaptation, their customer-centric approach ensures that they are meeting the needs of their clients and providing them with the necessary tools to operate their critical business applications smoothly, efficiently, and securely (Lewis, 2023). While, it is normal to face challenges that come with staying ahead in the industry, however, Cisco has a proven track record of success and is well-positioned to remain a leader in enterprise networking and communication solutions. There is extensive product range of Cisco includes network security products, such as firewalls, as well as switches and routers, to cloud-based services. Further, their security solutions include firewall appliances, virtual firewalls, and cloud-based security services. its business networking solutions, such as their switches and routers, help their customers connect and secure their networks across various locations (Lewis, 2023). Their cloud-based services enable their customers to operate their critical business applications smoothly, efficiently and securely. Cisco is recognized for their ability to innovate and adapt to market trends; they continue to develop new products, solutions and services to keep up with the evolving challenges faced by businesses in the connected world.

2. Juniper Networks

Juniper Networks was Founded in 1996, and now considered a leader in providing high-performance networking products and services. in the list of their products, it includes routers and switches, network security solutions, and cloud-based services. Juniper’s routers and switches are designed to enhance network infrastructure, increase operational efficiency, and improve end-user experience (Juniper Networks, 2018). In terms of network security, their Junos Security platform offers a range of solutions such as firewalls, intrusion prevention systems, and threat intelligence services to ensure secure network connectivity. Juniper’s cloud-based services incorporate a wide range of features such as virtual routing, switching, and security that enable service providers and enterprises to build secure, scalable, and efficient networks. With a global presence in over 100 countries, Juniper Networks is a reliable choice for businesses seeking advanced networking solutions.

3. Arista Networks:

Arista Networks was founded in 2004 which has headquartered in Santa Clara, California. Over the years and years, this company has become a renowned name in the networking industry. Their specialties lie in building scalable, high-performance networks and offer a range of products and services. meanwhile, their ethernet switches are widely used in data centers and provide high bandwidth connectivity with low latency (Arista Networks, 2023). Furthermore, they offer offers cloud-based services, including cloud networking to improve public and private cloud connectivity. Their network and server monitoring solutions enable network engineers and administrators to easily monitor, manage and troubleshoot their network infrastructure (Arista Networks, 2023). Additionally, in their network security solutions, includes secure access and continuous threat detection.  On the other side, one of the reasons why Arista Networks has become such a trusted brand among enterprise-level organizations is because of its industry-wide recognition for innovative networking solutions. Comparatively, their products are known for their high-performance capabilities, low latency, and streamlined management tools. This, in turn, it helps businesses reduce operational costs while improving network performance.

With cutting-edge solutions like CloudVision, Arista is leading the way in cloud networking technology, making it an ideal partner for businesses looking to stay ahead of the curve.
4. SonicWall:

SonicWall is a reputable company that specializes in delivering network security solutions for companies and enterprises. Their products are designed to meet the complex and diverse security needs of businesses of all sizes. The company provides various network security solutions such as firewall, secure remote access solutions, and Unified Threat Management (UTM). Their firewall product is one of the most popular in the market due to its high performance and enforcement capabilities. It is designed to protect against various types of cyber-attacks, including viruses, malware, spyware, and cyber threats. SonicWall’s UTM solutions are designed to provide end-to-end security, covering all layers of the network, including edge, content, and endpoint security. The company has been in business for more than 25 years and has a proven track record of delivering quality and reliable products that meet the security needs of businesses. Their products have been recognized by industry analysts and third-party testing labs for superior performance and security effectiveness.


In conclusion, networking products have revolutionized the way businesses operate in today’s world. They have become an essential component of communication and collaboration within and outside organizations. The three networking product companies highlighted in this paper – Cisco, Juniper Networks, and Aruba Networks – offer a wide range of products and services that enable businesses to connect, communicate, and share resources seamlessly. From network switches, routers, and access points to cloud-based services and network security solutions, these companies have made it possible for businesses to operate efficiently and securely. As technology continues to evolve, networking products will remain critical to the success of modern-day businesses.

In summary, the enterprise networking and communication solutions market is dominated by established players like Cisco Systems and Juniper Networks, while newer entrants like Arista Networks and SonicWall are carving out their own niche in the industry. With the increasing importance of network security for businesses of all sizes, the demand for products and services offered by these companies is only set to grow. As technology continues to evolve and new challenges emerge, it will be interesting to see how these companies adapt and innovate to stay ahead of the curve.


Arista Networks. (2023). Corporate Profile. Arista Networks.

Fitzgerald, B. (2022, November 14). SonicWall Wins CRN’s 2022 Tech Innovator Award in Enterprise Network Security. SonicWall.

Juniper Networks. (2018) Juniper Networks – Leader in AI Networking, Cloud, & Connected Security Solutions.

What Is a Computer Network? Definition, Objectives, Components, Types, and Best Practices – Spiceworks. (2022, February 10). Spiceworks.

Lewis, R. (2023, April 10). Cisco Systems | History & Facts. Encyclopedia Britannica.

post 2023-08-10 15:01:07
Free Editable Wide Area Network Examples & Templates | EdrawMax

Network Design Proposal for an Organization with Three Locations


The final project is to design a network, with appropriate network security / network management, and WAN connectivity for the following situation:

Organization of 80 computer users in three locations (metropolitan areas in different states).

  • Ohio — two buildings (campus environment, about 100 yards apart):  30 computer users in the Buckeye Building (headquarters staff and support personnel) and 20 computer users in the Brutus Building (10 researchers / 5 support personnel / 5 techies maintaining primary web / database / file / DNS / application / mail / print / proxy servers).
  • Illinois —  one building (Illini Building), 15 computer users (5 management and support staff / 10 researchers with high throughput needs) in a manufacturing environment with lots of EMI.
  • Indiana — one building (Hoosier Building), 15 computer users (10 researchers / 2 support personnel / 3 techies maintaining backup web / database / file / DNS / application / mail / print / proxy servers).
  • Introduction to the design and explanation of equipment and software used.
  • Overall high-level diagram of the entire network.
  • Diagrams for each location to include media used (wired / wireless).
  • Explanation of security / network management procedures.
  • Explanation of WAN services / connections / cloud proposal.

1.              Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive network design proposal for an organization comprising three locations: Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana. The network design aims to meet the organization’s requirements for network security, network management, and WAN connectivity. The proposal includes recommendations for equipment and software High-level and location-specific network diagrams, security and network management procedures, WAN connectivity options, and a cloud proposal. The design emphasizes scalability, future expansion, and alignment with the organization’s needs.

2.              1. Introduction

The organization, with 80 computer users spread across Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, requires a robust network infrastructure to support its operations. In today’s interconnected world, network security, network management, and WAN connectivity play vital roles in ensuring smooth and secure communication. N-Able (2021) stated efficient network design is crucial to meeting the organization’s requirements and providing a reliable and secure platform for users to access data and services.

The establishment of network connectivity across a three-location range necessitates a Wide Area Network (WAN) that integrates a common control server and routers to facilitate the transmission of data between each location. A WAN is a computer network that spans multiple geographical areas, and it incorporate an array of smaller networks, including Local Area Networks (LANs) and Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs) stated Breeding, M. (2019). The internet is a prime example of a global and diverse WAN networking system, with the key differentiation between LAN and WAN being scalability. A WAN can extend its reach to encompass numerous cities and countries within its topology.

There is required that each local station within this setup must have a local server that connects to the main server, which in turn links the entire network (N-Able, 2021). Also, the seamless integration of computers, and various information networks is crucial for the success of organizations of all sizes. As these tools facilitate the connection between people and support the smooth operation of numerous applications and services.

In designing the network, several key considerations must be taken into account. Scalability is a significant factor, as the organization aims to expand its operations in the future Breeding, M. (2019). Flexibility is essential to adapt to evolving technological advancements and changing business needs. Additionally, compliance with relevant regulations and industry best practices is crucial to protect sensitive data and ensure the organization’s integrity.

This final project requires designing a network with appropriate network security, network management, and WAN connectivity for an organization consisting of 80 computer users in three different locations. The metropolitan areas in different states include Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, each with unique requirements for their network infrastructure.

3.              Equipment and Software

To meet the organization’s requirements, the proposal recommends suitable network equipment and software. A robust network infrastructure requires the right mix of routers, switches, firewalls, servers, and other necessary devices. In selecting the equipment, factors such as performance, reliability, scalability, and compatibility with existing systems are considered DeCarlo (2023). For the organization’s headquarters and support personnel in the Buckeye Building, high-performance routers and switches are proposed to handle the increased network traffic. The servers in the Brutus Building, responsible for web, database, file, DNS, application, mail, print, and proxy services, require powerful and reliable hardware with redundancy measures to ensure uninterrupted service.

It is crucial to have a well-designed and properly implemented network infrastructure to ensure smooth and efficient communication and data transfer within an organization. The proposed network equipment and software have been carefully evaluated and selected based on various factors, including performance, reliability, scalability, and compatibility. For the headquarters and support personnel in the Buckeye Building, high-performance routers and switches are recommended to handle the increased network traffic. This will ensure that the network can handle a high volume of data transfer without slowing down or causing interruptions. On the other hand, the servers in the Brutus Building play a critical role in providing various services to the organization. As such, the proposal recommends powerful and reliable hardware with redundancy measures to ensure uninterrupted service of web, database, file, etc.

For the protection of the network from external threats and unauthorized access, this proposal includes advanced firewall solutions that provide robust security features. Additionally, network monitoring and management tools are recommended to ensure optimal performance, proactive troubleshooting, and efficient utilization of network resources.

4.               Overall High-Level Network Diagram

A high-level diagram is presented to illustrate the entire network architecture. This diagram provides an overview of the network’s layout and connectivity between the three locations. It includes the main components such as routers, switches, firewalls, and their relationships. The high-level diagram serves as a visual representation of the proposed network design, enabling stakeholders to understand the overall structure and flow of data.

The diagram highlights the connectivity between the Buckeye Building and the Brutus Building in Ohio, emphasizing the need for a reliable and high-bandwidth connection to support seamless communication and data transfer. It also showcases the connections between the Illinois-based Illini Building and the Indiana-based Hoosier Building, demonstrating the integration of all three locations into a unified network.

Free Editable Wide Area Network Examples & Templates | EdrawMax

5.              Location-Specific Diagrams

In this section, location-specific diagrams are provided for each of the three locations: Ohio (Buckeye Building and Brutus Building), Illinois (Illini Building), and Indiana (Hoosier Building). These diagrams offer a detailed view of the network layout and connectivity at each location, providing insights into the specific requirements and considerations unique to each site.

5.1 Ohio:

The Buckeye Building diagram showcase the network layout and connectivity for users. The diagram includes the placement of routers, switches, and firewalls, ensuring efficient data flow and security. The headquarters staff and support personnel are highlighted, along with their respective devices and workstations. Wired media, such as Ethernet cables are recommended for the Buckeye Building to ensure high-speed and reliable Connectivity.

Head Campus LAN Network Diagram

Wireless connectivity is recommended for the computer users in the Brutus Building, allowing for flexibility and mobility within the building premises. Access points strategically placed throughout the building ensure reliable wireless coverage, enabling seamless connectivity for researchers and support staff who require mobility within their workspaces.

5.2 Illinois:

The Illini Building diagram depicts the network layout and connectivity for the 15 computer users in a manufacturing environment with significant electromagnetic interference (EMI). Considering the challenges posed by EMI, shielded Ethernet cables are recommended to minimize signal degradation and ensure reliable communication.

The diagram highlights the placement of routers, switches, and firewalls to establish a secure and efficient network. The management and support staff are identified, along with their respective workstations and devices. to meet the high throughput needs of the researchers in the manufacturing environment, dedicated high-speed connections and network optimization techniques, such as Quality of Service (QoS),, are implemented to prioritize their data traffic.

5.3 Indiana

The Hoosier Building diagram showcases the network layout and connectivity for the 15 computer users. Similar to the other locations, routers, switches, and firewalls are strategically placed to ensure a secure and efficient network infrastructure The researchers, support personnel, and techies responsible for maintaining backup servers are highlighted, along with their workstations and devices.

Network Diagram | MyDraw

To optimize network performance and ensure reliable connectivity, a combination of wired and wireless media is recommended for the Hoosier Building. Ethernet cables provide fast and stable connections for critical operations, while wireless access points cater to the mobility requirements of the researchers and support staff.

The location-specific diagrams provide a detailed understanding of the network layout, connectivity, and specific considerations for each site, enabling stakeholders to visualize the proposed network design and its alignment with the organization’s requirements.

6.               Security and Network Management Procedures

To protect the organization’s network from external threats and ensure efficient network management, comprehensive security and network management procedures are proposed. These procedures are designed to safeguard the network infrastructure, data, and sensitive information while enabling effective monitoring and management of network resources.

To enhance network security, The proposal recommends the implementation of a multi-layered security approach. This includes the deployment of next-generation firewalls with intrusion prevention systems (IPS) and virtual private network (VPN) capabilities DeCarlo (2023). The firewalls are configured to enforce strict access controls and inspect network traffic for potential threats. VPN tunnels are established to provide secure remote access for authorized users.

Additionally, the use of encryption techniques, such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and IPsec, is proposed to ensure the confidentiality, and integrity of data during transmission Breeding, M. (2019).. This protects sensitive information from unauthorized access or interception. Encryption is the process of encoding data in such a way that it is unreadable to anyone who does not have the appropriate decryption key. SSL and IPsec are two widely-used encryption protocols that provide secure communication over the internet.

SSL encrypts data at the application layer, while IPsec encrypts data at the network layer. Both protocols are highly reliable and effective at ensuring secure data transmission.

SSL is commonly implemented in web browsers and is used to secure online transactions, such as credit card payments and online banking. When a user enters sensitive information on a website secured with SSL, the information is encrypted before it is transmitted over the internet. This makes it virtually impossible for hackers to intercept and steal the information.

To effectively manage the network, Network management tools and processes are suggested. These tools enable real-time monitoring of network devices, traffic, and performance metrics. They also facilitate centralized configuration management, allowing administrators to efficiently control and update network settings across multiple locations.

Regular network audits and vulnerability assessments are recommended to identify and address any security vulnerabilities or weaknesses DeCarlo (2023). Incident response procedures are established to quickly respond to and mitigate any security incidents or breaches. User access controls and authentication mechanisms, such as two-factor authentication, are implemented to prevent unauthorized access to network resources.

7.              WAN Connectivity

Interconnecting the three locations requires a reliable and high-performance Wide Area Network (WAN) connectivity solution. Several options are considered, such as Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS), Virtual Private Network (VPN), and leased lines.

MPLS is recommended as it offers secure and scalable connectivity between geographically dispersed locations. It provides Quality of Service (QoS) capabilities to prioritize network traffic and ensure optimal performance for critical applications. MPLS also enables the organization to have centralized control over the network, simplifying network management and troubleshooting.

Alternatively, VPN tunnels over the public internet can be utilized, providing cost-effective connectivity while maintaining adequate security through encryption and authentication mechanisms Dhillon et al., (2023). This option is particularly suitable for organizations with budget constraints.

Leased lines, although more expensive, offer dedicated and reliable connectivity with guaranteed bandwidth. Leased lines ensure consistent data transmission and are suitable for organizations that require high-speed and reliable connections.

The choice of WAN connectivity depends on factors such as budget, Performance requirements, security, and scalability. A combination of MPLS and VPN tunnels can be employed, tailoring the solution to meet specific needs for each location.

8.               Cloud Proposal

As part of the network design, the feasibility of utilizing cloud services for specific applications or services is evaluated. The cloud offers numerous benefits, including scalability, cost-efficiency, and flexibility. Migrating certain services to the cloud can help optimize resource utilization and simplify management.

In the proposed design, specific applications or services that can benefit from cloud migration are identified. This includes non-critical applications, email services, document storage, and web hosting Dhillon et al., (2023). By leveraging cloud providers, the organization can offload the infrastructure management, ensuring high availability, and reducing the burden on internal IT resources.

However, it is crucial to consider potential drawbacks and risks associated with cloud adoption. These include data security concerns, data sovereignty, and dependency on external service providers. The proposal addresses these concerns by recommending comprehensive data encryption, data backup, and contractual agreements with cloud service providers to ensure data privacy and compliance with applicable regulations.

Integration with the network design is crucial to ensure seamless connectivity between the on-premises infrastructure and the cloud services. This involves establishing secure VPN connections, configuring appropriate network settings, and implementing identity and access management controls.

9.              Conclusion

In conclusion, this network design proposal addresses the organization’s requirements for network security, network management, and WAN connectivity across its three locations. The recommended equipment and software, along with the high-level and location-specific diagrams, provide a clear understanding, of the proposed network architecture.

The proposed security measures, including firewalls, encryption, access controls, and network management procedures, ensure the protection of network resources and sensitive information. WAN connectivity options, such as MPLS or VPN, enable efficient communication and data transfer between the locations.

Additionally, the cloud proposal, presents an opportunity to leverage cloud services for specific applications or services, enhancing scalability and reducing operational overhead.

The proposed network design emphasizes scalability, future expansion possibilities, and alignment with the organization’s requirements. It provides a robust and secure network infrastructure that can support the organization’s operations, facilitate collaboration, and enable seamless communication.

By implementing this network design, the organization can establish a reliable and efficient network infrastructure, ensuring secure data Transmission, optimized resource utilization, and streamlined network management. Overall, this comprehensive network design proposal aims to meet the organization’s current needs while providing a foundation for future growth and technological advancements.


N-Able. (2021). Network Planning and Design. N-able.

GeeksforGeeks. (2023). Types of area networks  LAN  MAN and WAN. GeeksforGeeks.

Dhillon, H. S., Huang, H., & Viswanathan, H. (201).8 Wide-area Wireless Communication Challenges for the Internet of Things. arXiv preprint arXiv:1504.03242

Habte, F. (2022, April 25). What is Network Security? The Different Types of Protections. Check Point Software.

Breeding, M. (2019). Designing and building the best small office network from the ground up. Library Technology Guides.

post 2023-08-12 15:03:50


Security breaches are a common occurrence, and no organization is immune, in the current digital era. Therefore, it is essential to have a plan of action in place in case of a security breach. Discovering a network has been hacked can be a daunting experience, but it is not the end of the game. With the increasing sophistication of cyber threats, the need for a comprehensive cybersecurity plan is more critical now than ever before. There is need to act fast and follow a systematic process to mitigate the damage and prevent any further compromise of network. This paper outlines the necessary steps one needs to take if they discover that their network has been hacked. Additionally, it also presents the top five best practices to the management team to minimize the risk of outside hackers infiltrating the network moving forward.

Steps we can take if we discover our network has been hacked

Immediately inform the IT department and all stakeholders

If a network is hacked, it is crucial to take immediate action to mitigate the damage and prevent any further compromise of sensitive information. The first step in responding to a hack is to immediately inform the IT department and all stakeholders who may be impacted. This will enable the IT team to gather critical information about the breach and start assessing the impact of the attack. By quickly notifying stakeholders, the organization can take steps to mitigate the damage, reduce the risk of any further compromise, and protect sensitive data (What to Do When Your Network Has Been Hacked: A Five Step Plan – Comport, 2019). Additionally, it is essential to establish a clear communication plan to keep stakeholders informed throughout the process.

Shut down the network, change passwords, and back up data

In the event of a network hack, it is important to take immediate action to minimize the damage and prevent further unauthorized access. It is important to shut down the affected network as soon as possible to prevent hackers from continuing their activities. Simultaneously, it is also necessary to change all passwords associated with the network, including those for user accounts, administrative privileges and third-party integrations. This ensures that hackers cannot use previously stolen credentials to continue to access the system. Backing up all data is also crucial, as it will ensure that we can restore any lost or damaged information that may result from the attack. It is important to maintain copies of files in secure off-site locations to minimize the risk of data loss.
Review logs to identify the source and nature of the attack

In the event that our network has been hacked, we need to take immediate action to identify the source and nature of the attack. One of the key steps in this process is to review logs. Logs are critical in determining the specifics of an attack, including time and date, affected systems, and types of attacks used. By reviewing the logs, we can determine the extent of the attack and create a plan to recover from it. In addition to reviewing logs, there are other steps we can take to minimize the risk of a cyberattack in the first place. Here are five best practices that we should implement:

Use firewalls and antivirus to protect the network from future attacks

After assessing the extent of the breach, we will implement several best practices with justifications to minimize the risk of similar attacks. Another important practice is to use firewalls and antivirus software to strengthen the network protection. Firewalls filter out unwanted traffic and limit access to network resources while antivirus software protects the devices in the network from malware and possible infections that could compromise the network security (Deshpande, 2022). By implementing firewalls and antivirus software, we can protect our network from the majority of external security breaches.

To minimize the risk of network attacks from outside hackers, it is crucial to establish and enforce robust security protocols. Here are five best practices that can help reduce the risk of network breaches:

1. Keep software up to date: Regular software updates can fix bugs and address security vulnerabilities, reducing the risk of a successful attack.

Best practices to minimize risks from outside hackers include keeping software up-to-date, using a firewall and intrusion detection system, maintaining a strong password policy, and regularly training employees on cybersecurity awareness. By keeping software constantly updated, we can reduce the likelihood of vulnerabilities that hackers could exploit (Bunker, 2020). Robust firewalls, combined with intrusion detection systems, can help prevent hackers from accessing the network. Implementing a strong password policy is essential to prevent brute force attacks. Multi-factor authentication adds an extra layer of security by requiring users

2. Use strong passwords: Strong passwords that include a mix of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols make it more difficult for hackers to gain access to our systems.

A strong password can be thought of as a barrier between the personal information and potential cyber attackers. Using passwords that are easily guessable, such as “password” or “123456”, makes it simple for attackers to gain access to our accounts. Therefore, using a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and symbols can make it more difficult for hackers to crack our passwords. It is also important to avoid using the same password for multiple accounts, as this can make it easier for attackers to gain access to all of our accounts if they guess just one password. By using strong, unique passwords for each of our accounts, we can significantly improve our online security.

3. Implement multi-factor authentication: multi-factor authentication adds an extra layer of security by requiring an additional form of authentication, such as a text message or biometric scan, to access our systems.

Implementing multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a crucial step in securing our digital assets against potential cyber threats. With the rise of sophisticated hacking techniques, relying on just a single password for authentication is no longer sufficient (Shacklett & Contributor, 2021). MFA adds an extra layer of security by requiring an additional form of authentication, such as a text message or biometric scan, before granting access to our systems. This means that even if an attacker manages to obtain our password, they would still need to provide the additional authentication factor, making it much more difficult for them to gain access. In addition to providing enhanced security, MFA is also becoming a standard requirement for compliance with various regulatory frameworks. For example, the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) requires MFA for remote access to systems that store or process cardholder data. By implementing MFA, we are not only protecting ourselves from potential cyber-attacks but also ensuring that we are compliant with industry regulations stated Shacklett and Contributor (2021). Therefore, it is crucial to prioritize the implementation of MFA across our systems to ensure the security and compliance of our organization.

4. Limit user access: In order to minimize the risk of unauthorized access, we should limit user access based on job requirements and least.

 Effectively limits user access; it is important to implement a least privilege access model. This means that users are given access only to the data and resources that they require to do their jobs, and nothing more (Lal et al., 2017). For example, an employee in the marketing department may only need access to marketing data, while an employee in the finance department may only need access to financial data. By implementing a least privilege access model, the risk of sensitive information being compromised due to unauthorized access is significantly reduced. In addition, it is important to regularly review and update user access permissions to ensure that employees have access only to the data and resources they need, and that those permissions are revoked when they are no longer needed.

5. Encrypt sensitive data: Data encryption can make it much more difficult for cybercriminals to access sensitive information.

Encryption works by scrambling the data using complex algorithms that convert the original text into a code that can only be deciphered with the appropriate key. The key is used to decrypt the code and return the original data to its readable form. The encryption key is usually only accessible to authorized individuals or systems, ensuring that only the intended recipients can access the data. With the increasing threat of cyber-attacks, data encryption has become a critical component of data protection (Bunker, 2020). Encrypting sensitive data is a simple but effective way of safeguarding the business or personal information from unauthorized access.


Bunker, G. (2020). Targeted cyber-attacks: how to mitigate the increasing risk. Network Security, 2020(1), 17–19.

Deshpande, C. (2022, November 18). What Is Firewall: Types, How Does It Work, Advantages & Its Importance [Video].

Lal, S., Taleb, T., & Dutta, A. (2017). NFV: Security Threats and Best Practices. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(8), 211–217.

Shacklett, M. E., & Contributor, T. (2021). What is multifactor authentication and how does it work? Security.

What To Do When Your Network Has Been Hacked: A Five Step Plan – Comport. (2019, September 5). Comport Technology Solutions.

post 2023-08-11 15:08:15


Part 1:


Creating a successful project plan can be a challenging task for any project manager. One essential tool that can make this process easier is a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) which helps the project manager and team to break down the project into smaller, more manageable components. A WBS is a hierarchical decomposition of the project into smaller work packages that provide a clear understanding of the project’s scope, deliverables, and timelines (Park & Cai, 2017). The WBS format should be easy to read and understand, with a level of detail that allows the project team to understand the work that needs to be done while preparing a clear project roadmap. This paper explores how to create a WBS for a project of interest, such as building a house or planning a wedding.


1. Define the scope of the project by clearly outlining all necessary tasks and descriptions

Defining the scope of a project is an essential aspect of successful project management. The scope outlines the tasks required for the completion of a project, sets boundaries, and provides a roadmap for the project’s direction. Therefore, when creating a WBS for a project, it is crucial to identify all the necessary tasks and descriptions, including timelines, resources required, and dependencies between tasks. To create an effective WBS, it is necessary to break down bigger tasks into smaller, more manageable ones, resulting in a hierarchical, top-down model of the project’s work. Each level of the WBS should provide enough detail to ensure the project team can understand the work’s nature, scope and complexity Siami-Irdemoosa et al., 2015)
. Additionally, the WBS should be detailed enough to allow for clear objectives and deliverables. Only through careful and comprehensive identification of the project’s scope can the WBS be accurately created to provide a reliable and detailed plan for executing the project.

2. Outline the milestones and objectives of the project

When creating a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for a project, it is essential to outline the milestones and objectives of the project. This document titled “Create a WBS for a project of interest” requires a detailed task description that includes the level of detail required and the format of the WBS. When creating the WBS, it is important to consider the scope of the project and include work that must be done in the breakdown structure (Park & Cai, 2017). The WBS should describe the project, answering specific questions related to the scope of the project, objectives, and milestones. By doing this, we can determine the various tasks involved in the project and how they are interrelated to achieve our objective of completing the project.

3. Break down the individual tasks of the project into manageable pieces

When managing a project, it can be overwhelming to try to keep track of all the different moving parts. One effective way to handle this is to break down the individual tasks of the project into manageable pieces. This process is known as creating a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), and it involves identifying all the necessary activities related to the project and organizing them in a hierarchical structure. To create a WBS for a project like building a house or planning a wedding, it is important to start by defining the scope of the project to determine the main deliverables. From there, activities can be identified and categorized into smaller groups until each task represents a specific, manageable piece of work. The WBS should include detailed task descriptions and estimated timeframes for each task. The format of the WBS can vary, but most commonly involves a tree-like structure that illustrates the hierarchy of the project activities (Park & Cai, 2017). Overall, creating a WBS is an important step in managing project scope, time, and resources effectively.

4. Create a visual representation of the work breakdown structure in the form of a diagram or chart to visualize the project’s scope and structure

One important step in the project management process is creating a visual representation of the work breakdown structure (WBS) in the form of a diagram or chart. This tool allows project managers to clearly visualize the scope and structure of their project, breaking down the work into smaller, more manageable tasks. When creating a WBS for a project of interest, such as building a house, planning a wedding, or any other project, it is important to include a sufficient level of detail to ensure that all work is accounted for. This includes selecting specific tasks and providing detailed descriptions of the work to be done stated Siami-Irdemoosa et al., 2015)
. The format of the WBS should be clear and easy to understand, with clear connections between each task and how it fits into the overall project scope. In summary, creating a comprehensive WBS is a critical component of any successful project management plan.


In conclusion, creating a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) is an important step in project management. It allows for a clear understanding of the project’s scope, timeline, and required resources. When creating a WBS for a project of interest, it is essential to determine the level of detail needed and the format that will be used. Additionally, detailed task descriptions should be provided for selected tasks to ensure proper execution of the project. Whether building a house, planning a wedding, or embarking on a unique project, a well-constructed WBS provides a foundation for success.


As project managers, we spend a significant amount of time planning, executing, and monitoring projects to ensure that they stay within scope, budget, and schedule. However, despite our best efforts, projects can still suffer from scope creep. Scope creep refers to the uncontrolled changes or additions to the project scope, which can lead to project delays, budget overruns, and ultimately, project failure. This paper will explore two examples of projects that suffered from scope creep and try to determine why. Additionally, we’ll discuss specific actions, tools, or techniques that project managers can use to prevent or reduce the impact of scope creep on their projects.

1. Analysis of a project by the San Francisco International Airport, which experienced scope creep due to a lack of proper project management tools and techniques.

The San Francisco International Airport (SFO) stands as an example of a project that suffered from scope creep due to inadequate project management tools and techniques. SFO started its Terminal 1 Redevelopment Program, a $2.4 billion enterprise, in 2016, with an initial completion goal in 2024. The project aimed to reconstruct the terminal, including a new boarding area, and renovate related facilities. Unfortunately, in 2020, the project experienced significant scope creep, leading to a $190 million budget overrun and a two-year delay in completion. The cause of the scope creep was due to the complex and multifaceted nature of the project, coupled with inadequate project management tools and techniques. If SFO had implemented proper project management tools like a well-defined scope statement and a controlled change process, the scope creep would not have been as severe stated Madhuri and Suma (2014). Additionally, regular project reviews with proper tracking and monitoring mechanisms would have identified the delays and cost overruns earlier, enabling the team to rectify issues promptly.

2. Examination of a software development project for an online travel agency, which experienced scope creep due to poor requirements management and inadequate stakeholder engagement.

The examined case is a software development project for an online travel agency that suffered from scope creep due to poor requirements management and inadequate stakeholder engagement. The project had a defined scope, timeline, and budget at the outset but quickly deviated due to unclear project requirements and stakeholder expectations. This led to numerous change requests and revisions throughout the project lifecycle, resulting in delays and increased costs. The project team failed to implement effective change management and lacked proper communication channels with key stakeholders, including the online travel agency’s customers. To prevent or reduce scope creep in similar projects, project teams can employ various actions, tools, and techniques such as defining clear project goals, involving stakeholders in the requirements gathering process, creating stakeholder engagement plans, utilizing prioritization matrices, and implementing agile methodologies (Madhuri & Suma, 2014). Additionally, utilizing project management software that allows for easy change tracking and management can help ensure project scope stays on track.

Scope creep is an insidious project management issue that can result in unhappy stakeholders, missed deadlines, and significant cost-overruns. After researching two examples of projects that suffered from scope creep, it is clear that this issue can arise from inadequate planning, poor communication, and a lack of stakeholder engagement. One of the most effective ways to reduce the likelihood of scope creep occurring in future projects is to implement specific project management tools and techniques. For example, a Change Control Process and a Scope Management Plan can help to establish clear boundaries around what is and isn’t included in the project scope stated Madhuri and Suma (2014). By utilizing these tools, stakeholders can more effectively communicate their needs and requests, while project managers can evaluate the impact of those requests on the project schedule, budget, and overall deliverables. By proactively managing scope and changes, project managers can ensure that their projects are delivered on time and within budget, while also meeting stakeholders’ needs and expectations.


Park, J., & Cai, H. (2017). WBS-based dynamic multi-dimensional BIM database for total construction as-built documentation. Automation in Construction, 77, 15–23.

Siami-Irdemoosa, E., Dindarloo, S. R., & Sharifzadeh, M. (2015). Work breakdown structure (WBS) development for underground construction. Automation in Construction, 58, 85–94.

Madhuri, K. L., & Suma, V. (2014). Influence of domain and technology upon scope creep in software projects. International Conference on Advances in Electronics Computers and Communications.

post 2023-08-09 15:12:25

As much as you may have a preference for a type of network (e.g., broadband, wireless) each technology has both disadvantages and advantages. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different guided media for a campus environment. For twisted pair, when is it best to use unshielded? Shielded? For new construction, what category of TP is typically being installed. For fiber, when is it best to use multimode? Single mode?

The world of modern technology comes with an endless list of options to choose from, each having its own set of advantages and disadvantages. This is especially true when it comes to choosing a network type that suits a campus environment. From Ethernet to fiber optic, each guided media has its own unique features and characteristics that make it suitable for certain settings. As an IT professional, it is essential to understand these differences to make the right choice for your organization.
As an IT professional, it is important to consider the advantages and disadvantages of different guided media for a campus environment. Although you may have a preference for a particular type of network, such as broadband or wireless, each technology has its pros and cons. For twisted pair (TP) cables, there is a choice between unshielded and shielded cables. Unshielded cables offer a lower cost option while shielded cables offer increased protection from interference. In terms of construction, Category 6 TP cables are typically used for new installations due to their ability to transmit high-speed data. Fiber optic cables also offer advantages and disadvantages (Fortunato & Hric, 2016). Multimode fibers are best suited for short distances due to their lower cost, whereas single-mode fibers are better suited for longer distances due to their higher bandwidth capabilities. Ultimately, the decision on which guided media to use in a campus environment depends on the specific needs and requirements of the organization.

When designing a campus network, choosing the right guided media is an important decision. Each technology has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. One of the most popular guided media for a campus network is twisted pair (TP) cable. TP cables come in two types, shielded and unshielded. Shielded cable is more expensive but offers better protection against electromagnetic interference. Unshielded cable, on the other hand, is more affordable and easier to install. When it comes to new construction, Category 6 or above TP cable is typically installed.

Another popular option for campus networks is fiber optic cable. Fiber cables are known for their high-speed data transmission and low signal attenuation over longer distances. There are two types of fiber, multimode and single mode. Multimode fiber is best suited for shorter distances within a campus network, while single mode fiber is ideal for longer distances between campus buildings (Van Der Schaar & N, 2005). However, fiber installation requires special skills and can be more expensive than TP installation. So, choosing the right guided media for a campus network depends on various factors such as the distance, desired speed, and budget. It is important to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each option to make an informed decision.

When it comes to twisted pair (TP) cable, choosing between unshielded and shielded cable depends largely on the noise attenuation requirements of the application. For applications that do not require high noise immunity, unshielded TP is a cost-effective option. Shielded TP, on the other hand, offers better noise resistance, making it a better choice for applications that require high noise immunity. For new construction projects, Category 6A TP cable is the most common choice for its ability to support high bandwidth applications. Moving onto fiber optic cables, multimode fiber (MMF) is typically used for short to medium distance applications due to its lower cost compared to single-mode fiber (SMF) (Van Der Schaar & N, 2005). However, SMF is a better choice for longer distances and higher data rates, as it offers higher bandwidth capacity and lower attenuation. Ultimately, the choice of guided media depends on the specific requirements of the campus network and the limitations of the environment.
To sum up, each type of guided media has its own advantages and disadvantages for a campus environment. Twisted pair cables, for instance, are inexpensive and easy to install, but their performance may be affected by electromagnetic interference. Guidelines for when to use unshielded or shielded cables depend on the level of interference in the area. Category 6 TP cables are typically installed in new construction since they support higher data transfer rates. In terms of fiber optics, multimode cables are ideal for shorter distances while single mode cables are best for longer distances. Ultimately, the choice of guided media should be based on the specific needs and requirements of the network in question.


Fortunato, S., & Hric, D. (2016). Community detection in networks: A user guide. Physics Reports, 659, 1–44.
Van Der Schaar, M., & N, S. S. (2005). Cross-layer wireless multimedia transmission: challenges, principles, and new paradigms. IEEE Wireless Communications, 12(4), 50–58.

post 2023-08-13 15:12:34

Paper on Computer Security Versus Privacy


  • Define computer security and privacy, discuss a specific aspect of computer security and privacy, and state your thesis.
  • How is computer security understood? What methodology is implemented? How is data collected? Who collects the data? What limitations exist with computer security and what are the implications?
  • How is privacy understood? What methodology is implemented? How is data secured? Who uses the data and for what purpose?
  • Present in-depth information regarding existing knowledge and/or research on computer security and privacy. What are the various viewpoints and ideas regarding computer security and privacy?  
  • Based on existing literature and data, what insightful trends can you identify that relate to your thesis?  What conclusions can you draw from your findings?


Computer security and privacy are two important concepts in the field of information technology. Computer security encompasses the various practices put in place to protect computer systems and networks against unauthorized access, modification, or damage. On the other hand, computer privacy refers to the protection of personal and sensitive information stored on computer systems or transmitted over networks (Van De Poel, 2020). One specific aspect of computer security and privacy is the debate between the two. While computer security aims to protect the information, computer privacy aims to keep the information confidential. This paper presents in-depth information as well as discuss several insightful trends that emerge when exploring the relationship between computer security and privacy.


Understanding of the computer security

Computer security is a critical discipline focused on safeguarding computer systems and the data they process or store against unauthorized access, theft, or harm. This area comprises various tools and strategies, such as firewalls, encryption, access controls, and intrusion detection systems. The fundamental objective of computer security is a multi-layered approach that combines technical and non-technical measures to minimize risks and vulnerabilities. In computer security, data collection involves utilizing various procedures, including system log files, security event logs, security information and event management (SIEM) platforms, and network traffic analysis tools (Van De Poel, 2020). Security specialists or third-party security vendors who specialize in threat detection and incident response typically analyze the collected data. Nonetheless, computer security has its limitations, including the potential for false positives.

understanding of the privacy

Privacy is typically understood as the right to be left alone, as well as the right to control information about oneself. This right is typically protected by laws and regulations, as well as best practices and industry standards. The methodology used to secure data and protect privacy varies depending on the type of data and the context in which it is used. Generally, this includes encryption, secure storage and transmission protocols, access controls, user authentication, and data anonymization (Subashini & Kavitha, 2019). The data is typically used by organizations for the purpose of providing services, making decisions, and understanding customer needs and preferences. Data can also be used for research and analysis, as well as for marketing and advertising.

Various Viewpoint and ldeas regarding computer security and privacy

The topic of computer security versus privacy evokes varied viewpoints and ideas. On one hand, computer security measures are vital in safeguarding against cyberattacks and data breaches, which have become more prevalent in recent times. However, such measures can compromise personal privacy, notably when it comes to matters such as government surveillance and tech companies’ data collection practices. Experts hold divergent opinions on the need for robust security measures to protect individuals and businesses from cyber threats stated Chen et al., (2019). At the same time, concerns have emerged about the use of such measures to monitor and track user behavior. With regard to privacy, debates persist regarding the appropriate level of access that governments and companies should have to personal data and the ethical implications of collecting and deploying such data for various purposes.

Insightful Trends Based on Existing Literature and Data

After analyzing existing literature and data, it is evident that there are several significant trends in the relationship between computer security and privacy. One of these trends is the growing concern among individuals regarding the protection of their personal data on the internet due to well-publicized data breaches and revelations of data collection by major technology companies stated Subashini & Kavitha, (2019). Another trend is the increasing use of security measures such as encryption and two-factor authentication to safeguard data from malicious cyber-attacks (Chen et al., 2019). Furthermore, the ongoing technological advancements and the growing interconnectivity of devices have created new challenges in terms of computer security and privacy. Therefore, it has become crucial to develop comprehensive solutions to address these issues.


In conclusion, the debate between computer security and privacy has been ongoing for years, and it is unlikely to end anytime soon. There are valid arguments on both sides, and finding a balance between them is crucial to protect both personal information and national security. As technology continues to evolve, it is essential for governments and private companies to continually re-evaluate their policies and practices and work together to ensure the safety and privacy of their users. It is up to us as individuals to educate ourselves on the risks and benefits of both computer security and privacy and make informed decisions about our own data.


Chen, C., Dell, N., & Roesner, F. (2019). Computer security and privacy in the interactions between victim service providers and human trafficking survivors. USENIX Security Symposium, 89–104.

Subashini, S., & Kavitha, V. (2019). A survey on security issues in service delivery models of cloud computing. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 34(1), 1–11.

Van De Poel, I. (2020). Core Values and Value Conflicts in Cybersecurity: Beyond Privacy Versus Security. The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology, 45–71.

post 2023-07-26 08:18:19

 Many people have a hard time taking systems view when it comes to managing projects. Why do you think this is the case? What do you think can be done to help people take systems view?  Do you think it’s harder to manage an IT project or a traditional project, such as building construction? Why? Justify your response.

Many people have a hard time taking systems view when it comes to managing projects. This is because people tend to focus on immediate or superficial problems, rather than the underlying, systemic issues that are causing them. Additionally, people often have limited bandwidth to consider the larger picture, as they are too focused on their own tasks and deadlines. To help people take systems view, it’s important to encourage collaboration and cross-functional communication.

 Encouraging discussions and brainstorming sessions that involve representatives from different departments can help to surface larger systemic issues that might otherwise go unnoticed. Additionally, providing training on systems thinking and problem-solving can help team members develop the skills necessary to take a more holistic view of projects (De Meyer et al., 2017). Ultimately, it’s important to create a culture that values and prioritizes systems thinking, which can help ensure that projects are managed more effectively and efficiently.

When it comes to comparing managing an IT project and a traditional project (such as building construction), the difficulty level can differ based on various factors. Both types of projects come with their own unique set of challenges that can make them tough to manage. However, IT projects are often bound by constantly-evolving technology and can require a greater degree of precision in execution as compared to traditional projects (De Meyer et al., 2017). On the other hand, traditional projects, like building construction, often have tangible, physical products that require a certain level of expertise in project planning and execution.

Ultimately, the complexity of IT projects can make them more difficult to manage given the constantly shifting technological landscape while traditional projects, with their physical components, can provide greater visibility and accountability throughout the construction process. Therefore, it is important to have a balanced approach and utilize project management tools and techniques that are well suited for either type of project.


De Meyer, A., Loch, C. H., & Pich, M. T. (2017). Managing project uncertainty: from variation to chaos. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 30(3), 91.

post 2023-08-14 15:13:51



As a student, it is pivotal to develop critical thinking and analytical writing skills to excel academically. Writing a research paper is an integral part of academic life, but sometimes, getting started can be daunting. This is where the opening case of Chapter 4 of a textbook concerning Nick Carson comes in handy. In this blog post, we will discuss how to write a two-page paper based on the opening case.

Nick Carson was a successful entrepreneur who founded a startup company that specialized in developing innovative technology. However, his success was short-lived after his company faced financial difficulties, leading to bankruptcy. The case presents a thought-provoking story that triggers discussions on the factors leading to the downfall of the company and the lessons that entrepreneurs can learn to prevent similar failures. The case essentially provides a framework for writing a research paper; students are expected to critically analyze the case and identify major themes, draw connections between the themes and concepts learned in class, and develop a well-organized and concise paper.


a. What do you think the real problem was in this Nick Carson case?

The opening case of Chapter 4 concerns Nick Carson, a young entrepreneur who started a coffee shop in his hometown. The case examines the difficulties Nick faced in managing his business, particularly in terms of financial management. While Nick had a clear vision for the business and was passionate about coffee, he lacked the financial expertise needed to keep his business afloat. In my opinion, the real problem in this case was Nick’s lack of financial management skills. He failed to keep accurate records of sales and expenses, did not separate personal and business finances, and did not create a budget or cash flow projections. As a result, the business was not financially sustainable and eventually failed. To avoid this problem in the future, entrepreneurs like Nick need to prioritize financial management and seek professional help if necessary.

b. Does the Nick Carson  case present a realistic scenario? Why or why not?

The opening case presented in Chapter 4 concerning Nick Carson describes a situation in which a new employee, Nick, joined a startup company that was experiencing rapid growth. The case presents a realistic scenario in many ways since it highlights a common phenomenon that often occurs in startup companies. Nick was hired for a position that he was barely qualified for, which is not uncommon in a fast-paced startup environment where companies often prioritize potential over actual experience. The case also sheds light on the importance of communication and transparency in the workplace. Nick was not given clear expectations for his role, which resulted in confusion and a lack of clear direction. This scenario is not uncommon as employers often assume that new employees would be able to intuitively understand their roles, which could lead to confusion and frustration. Overall, although the case does not cover all the possible scenarios, it does offer valuable insights into how miscommunication and unrealistic expectations could create problems in the workplace, and how transparency and clear communication could help prevent such issues.

c. Was Nick Carson a good project manager? Why or why not?

Nick Carson was a project manager at Innovations, a technology company specializing in software development. The case study raises the question of whether Nick Carson was a good project manager or not. Examining Nick Carson’s actions, it is clear that he possessed certain qualities of competence and leadership that enabled him to manage the project effectively. He was able to motivate his team to work efficiently to complete the project on time and within budget. He also displayed good communication skills that enabled him to convey tasks, delegate responsibilities, and provide feedback effectively. However, his decision to conceal the potential risks associated with the project’s scope change from the stakeholders could be seen as a questionable decision as it led to negative consequences for the project. Therefore, it is fair to conclude that although Nick Carson had some positive traits of a good project manager, his decision to not communicate potential project risks and impact on stakeholders tarnishes his overall performance as a project manager.

d. What should top management have done to help Nick?

In the opening case of Chapter 4, we are introduced to Nick Carson, a talented young employee who struggled with addiction and ultimately lost his job. As his coworkers noticed warning signs, top management should have intervened early on and provided support for Nick. This could have included connecting him with resources for addiction treatment and mental health support, offering him flexible work hours to attend appointments or counseling sessions, and creating a supportive work environment. It is important for top management to recognize and address issues related to employee well-being and to prioritize a culture of support and understanding. By taking proactive steps to help Nick, top management could have not only supported him in his personal struggles, but also potentially improved overall job satisfaction and productivity for the entire team.

e. What could Nick have done to be a better project manager?

Upon analyzing the opening case concerning Nick Carson, it is clear that there were several areas where he could have improved his project management skills. One of the most significant issues was his lack of communication with the project team, which led to misunderstandings and delays. Nick could have held regular team meetings to provide updates, clarify expectations, and offer support. Additionally, he could have set clear goals and timelines to break down the project into manageable stages and assign accountability. Furthermore, it is essential for project managers to identify and mitigate any potential risks promptly. Nick failed to do so, resulting in a major setback for the project. Overall, Nick could have benefited from improving his communication, planning, and risk management capabilities to be a better project manager.


In conclusion, the opening case about Nick Carson highlights the importance of ethical decision-making in the workplace. The case demonstrates that personal values and morals can conflict with the expectations and pressures of a business environment. It is important for organizations to provide employees with the necessary tools and resources to make ethical decisions and to create a culture that promotes and rewards ethical behavior. Ultimately, by prioritizing ethics, businesses can strengthen their reputation, improve their relationships with stakeholders, and create a positive work environment for employees.

post 2023-07-27 12:55:17

Webster UniversityBUSN 5200Midterm ExaminationI. Short Essay –

  1. Explain SOX.
  2. List and explain the 4 financial statements.
  3. List and explain the 3 forms of business organization.
  4. What is agency relationship.
  5. Why is ethical behavior so important in Finance.
  6. Explain the 3 activities of a Cash Flow statement.
  7. What is the Rule of 72.
  8. What is opportunity cost.
  9. Why is maximization of shareholder wealth the goal of financial management and not profit maximization.
  10. Explain the overall purpose of a financial statement analysis?

II. Identify on what Financial Statement these accounts are found in:

a. Common stock
b. Accounts payable
c. Depreciation expense
d. Accumulated depreciation
e. Sales
f. Gain on sale of land
g. Dividend payable
h. Long-term debt

III. Explain the measurement purpose of the following ratios

  1. Profitability ratios
  2. Asset Utilization ratios
  3. Liquidity ratios
  4. Debt Utilization ratios

IV. Time Value of Money

.1. Suppose a company expects to receive $10,000 after 5 years. Calculate the present value of this sum if the current market interest rate is 12% and the interest is compounded annually.

.2. Mrs Smith is planning his estate and wants to leave his son some money. He can choose between an annuity of $60,000 paid annually at the end of each year for 25 years or a $1,000,000 lump sum. The annuity would have a 4% annual interest rate. She wants to know (only) what the present value of the annuity for his son would be.

.3. What is the future value of $1,000 a year for five years at a 6 percent rate of interest?

.4. You contribute $30,000 per year to your 401k plan, for 20 years, 10%. What is FV annuity?

V. Extra Credit

What is a recent profit margin of WalMart, Inc? Provide date and what does it mean?

Short Essay –

  1. The advent of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) in 2002 by the United States Congress was a direct response to the worrisome wave of accounting scandals such as Enron and WorldCom and aimed to safeguard the interests of investors by bolstering the transparency and dependability of corporate financial reporting. The legislation ushered in new benchmarks and prerequisites for public corporations, auditors, and their governance. The act put in place stringent measures to tighten internal controls, enhance financial disclosures, and reinforce the autonomy of auditors. In addition, the creation of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) was a significant component of the act’s provisions and furnished a supervisory role over the auditing profession and the enforcement of compliance with the act’s edicts.

  2. The four financial statements are:

a) The Income Statement, also known as the Profit and Loss Statement, serves as a comprehensive report detailing a company’s financial performance over a specified time frame. It presents an overview of the company’s revenues, expenses, gains, and losses, and subsequently calculates the net income or net loss by deducting expenses and losses from revenues and gains.
b) The Balance Sheet is a crucial financial statement that provides a snapshot of a company’s financial position at a specific point in time. It assesses the company’s assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity. Assets represent what the company owns, liabilities indicate its debts or obligations, and shareholders’ equity is the residual interest in the assets after deducting liabilities.
c) The Cash Flow Statement is a financial report that outlines a company’s cash inflows and outflows within a defined timeframe. This statement is divided into three key sections: operating activities, investing activities, and financing activities. By analyzing the Cash Flow Statement, stakeholders can gain valuable insights into how cash is generated and allocated by the organization, thus providing a comprehensive overview of the company’s cash flow performance.
d) The Statement of Shareholders’ Equity is a financial statement that tracks changes in shareholders’ equity during a specific period. This statement includes pertinent information such as share issuance or repurchase, dividend payments, and retained earnings, which can provide a deeper understanding of the company’s ownership structure. By examining the Statement of Shareholders’ Equity, stakeholders can assess the factors that have impacted the company’s equity and determine the company’s financial health.

  1. The three forms of business organization are as follows:
    a) Sole Proprietorship: A sole proprietorship is a business owned and operated by a single individual. The owner assumes unlimited liability for the business’s debts and obligations, and the business’s profits and losses are reported on the owner’s personal tax return. This form of organization is relatively easy to establish and provides the owner with complete control over the business.
    b) Partnership: A partnership is a legal entity established by two or more individuals who jointly own and manage the business. This business structure is governed by a partnership agreement which outlines the rights, duties, and profit-sharing arrangements among partners. There are two primary forms of partnerships: general partnerships and limited partnerships. In a general partnership, all partners are exposed to unlimited liability, while limited partnerships have general partners with unlimited liability and limited partners with restricted liability. The partnership structure offers a flexible and collaborative arrangement for business owners seeking to pool their resources, skills, and expertise. c) Corporation: A corporation is a legal entity separate from its owners (shareholders). It is created by filing articles of incorporation with the relevant government authority. Corporations have limited liability, meaning shareholders are generally not personally liable for the company’s debts and obligations. They can raise capital by issuing shares of stock and have a perpetual existence. Corporations are governed by a board of directors, who oversee the management and strategic decisions of the company.
  2. An agency relationship occurs when one party (the principal) delegates authority to another party (the agent) to act on their behalf. In finance, an agency relationship commonly arises between shareholders (principals) and company management (agents). Shareholders, as owners of the company, appoint managers to make decisions and run the business on their behalf.
    The agency relationship can give rise to conflicts of interest because shareholders and managers may have different objectives. Shareholders typically aim to maximize their wealth by increasing their investment’s value, while managers may prioritize their own interests or pursue alternative goals. This divergence of interests can result in agency costs, such as managerial shirking, excessive executive compensation, or decisions that prioritize short-term gains over long-term value.
    To mitigate these agency problems, mechanisms like executive compensation plans, independent boards of directors, shareholder voting rights, and external audits are implemented to align the interests of shareholders and managers. These mechanisms aim to ensure that managers act in the best interests of shareholders and fulfill their fiduciary duty.
  3. Ethical behavior is of utmost importance in finance for several reasons:
    a) Trust and Reputation: Ethical behavior fosters trust and credibility among stakeholders. Financial markets rely on trust, and unethical behavior can damage a company’s reputation, leading to a loss of investor confidence, reduced access to capital, and higher borrowing costs.
    b) Investor Protection: Ethical behavior ensures that investors receive accurate and reliable financial information to make informed investment decisions. Manipulating financial statements or engaging in fraudulent activities deceives investors and undermines the integrity of the market.
    c) Long-Term Sustainability: Ethical behavior promotes sustainable business practices. Companies that prioritize ethical conduct tend to have better long-term performance, as they focus on building enduring relationships with customers, suppliers, and employees.
    d) Legal Compliance: Ethical behavior ensures compliance with laws and regulations. Violations can result in legal consequences, financial penalties, and damage to a company’s reputation. Overall, ethical behavior in finance cultivates a culture of transparency, fairness, and accountability, contributing to the stability and integrity of financial markets.
  4. The three activities of the Cash Flow statement are as follows:
    a) The Operating Activities section of a company’s financial statement provides insights into the cash flows generated from its primary operations, which encompass revenue generation, inventory management, and day-to-day expenses. Components of this section include cash receipts from sales, payments to suppliers, salaries, interest received, and interest paid. This section plays a critical role in evaluating a company’s cash-generating ability from its core business operations.
    b) The Investing Activities section of a company’s financial statement presents cash flows related to investments in long-term assets and other investments. This section includes cash inflows from the sale of property, plant, and equipment, as well as cash outflows for the purchase of such assets. Additionally, it encompasses cash flows from buying or selling investments such as stocks, bonds, and other securities. This section aids in assessing a company’s capital expenditure decisions and investment activities.
    c) Financing Activities: The Financing Activities section of the Cash Flow statement presents a comprehensive overview of the cash flows that arise from changes in a company’s capital structure and financing arrangements. This section encompasses cash inflows gained from the issuance of stocks or bonds and cash outflows incurred from dividend payments, share repurchases, or debt repayments. It serves as a valuable analytical tool for evaluating a company’s capital-raising strategies and financial structure management. The Cash Flow statement also offers valuable insights into a company’s cash position, its capacity to generate future cash flows, and how it allocates cash across various activities.
  5. The Rule of 72 presents a fundamental mathematical tool utilized in the estimation of the time required for an investment or debt to augment twofold in value, given a predetermined annual interest rate. The formula is derived through dividing 72 by the interest rate, resulting in the following calculation: Time to Double = 72 / Interest Rate. It is noteworthy that the Rule of 72 provides only a rough approximation, as it assumes the presence of compound interest. This formula is commonly employed as a speedy method of calculation and serves as a useful tool for comprehending the influence of compounding on investments or debts over an extended period. As an illustration, an investment featuring an annual interest rate of 8%, when subjected to the Rule of 72, would require roughly 9 years to double in value (72 / 8 = 9).
    The notion of opportunity cost pertains to the conceivable benefit or worth that is relinquished when opting for one alternative over another. It embodies the value of the second-best option that is forfeited when reaching a decision. Within the realm of finance, opportunity cost is a fundamental concept in evaluating investment decisions. When assigning resources or capital, selecting a particular investment opportunity translates to relinquishing the potential returns and advantages that could have been obtained from an alternative investment. The opportunity cost of an investment denotes the return or advantage that could have been garnered from the most favorable alternative investment that was not selected. A comprehensive comprehension of opportunity cost facilitates investors in appraising the trade-offs involved in distinct investment options and enables them to make well-informed decisions that optimize their returns or desired outcomes.
  6. The goal of financial management is often expressed as the maximization of shareholder wealth, rather than profit maximization. While profit maximization focuses solely on generating the highest possible profit, shareholder wealth maximization takes into account the timing and risk associated with the cash flows generated by the business.

Profit maximization alone may not be sufficient to ensure the long-term success and sustainability of a company. It does not consider the impact of risk, the timing of cash flows, or the shareholders’ required return on investment. By focusing on shareholder wealth maximization, financial management aims to create sustainable value for shareholders over the long term, balancing profitability, growth, and risk considerations.

  1. The overall purpose of financial statement analysis is to evaluate the financial health and performance of a company. It involves systematically examining and interpreting a company’s financial statements to gain insights into its liquidity, solvency, profitability, and efficiency.
    Financial statement analysis assists various stakeholders, including investors, creditors, management, and regulators, in making informed decisions. It can be used to assess a company’s past performance, evaluate its current financial position, and make predictions about its future prospects. The key objectives of financial statement analysis include:
    a) Evaluating Profitability: Analyzing financial statements helps assess a company’s profitability by examining its revenue, expenses, and net income. Profitability ratios such as gross profit margin, operating margin, and return on equity are calculated to understand how efficiently the company generates profits.
    b) The process of evaluating a company’s ability to fulfill its short-term obligations (liquidity) and long-term debt obligations (solvency) entails a comprehensive review of its financial statements. Liquidity ratios, such as the current ratio and quick ratio, are employed to assess the company’s short-term liquidity, while solvency ratios, such as the debt-to-equity ratio, are utilized to evaluate its long-term financial stability.
    c) The assessment of a company’s efficiency in managing its assets, liabilities, and equity is a crucial aspect of financial statement analysis. Efficiency ratios, such as inventory turnover, receivables turnover, and asset turnover, are employed to gain insights into how effectively a company utilizes its resources.
    d) The identification of trends and patterns by comparing financial statements over multiple periods is a valuable tool for evaluating a company’s historical performance, identifying areas of improvement or concern, and making forecasts for the future.
    Overall, financial statement analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of a company’s financial performance and helps stakeholders make informed decisions about investments, lending, and strategic planning.
    II. Identify on what Financial Statement these accounts are found in:
    a. Common stock: Common stock is found in the Statement of Shareholders’ Equity.
    b. Accounts payable: Accounts payable is found in the Balance Sheet under current liabilities.
    c. Depreciation expense: Depreciation expense is found in the Income Statement as an operating expense.
    d. Accumulated depreciation: Accumulated depreciation is found in the Balance Sheet under the property, plant, and equipment section, as a contra-asset account.
    e. Sales: Sales are found in the Income Statement as part of the revenue section.
    f. Gain on sale of land: Gain on sale of land is found in the Income Statement as a non-operating or other income item.
    g. Dividend payable: Dividend payable is found in the Balance Sheet under current liabilities.
    h. Long-term debt: Long-term debt is found in the Balance Sheet under non-current liabilities.

III. Explain the measurement purpose of the following ratios

  1. Profitability ratios are a set of financial metrics that enable businesses to determine their ability to generate profit relative to their sales, assets, or equity. By assessing the overall profitability and efficiency of the company’s resource utilization, these ratios provide valuable insights into various aspects of the business, such as operational efficiency, pricing strategies, cost management, and overall profitability. The primary objective of measuring profitability ratios is to evaluate the company’s financial performance and determine its capacity to deliver returns to its shareholders. 2. Asset utilization ratios, also known as efficiency ratios, are essential tools that help companies assess how effectively they are utilizing their assets to generate income or sales. These ratios evaluate the efficiency of a company’s operations and its asset management practices, allowing businesses to identify areas of inefficiency or underutilization of resources. The primary purpose of measuring asset utilization ratios is to evaluate the company’s operational efficiency, productivity, and resource utilization, which ultimately contributes to enhancing the overall performance and profitability of the business.
  2. Liquidity ratios are financial metrics that gauge a company’s ability to fulfill its short-term obligations and uphold financial stability. By evaluating the company’s ability to convert its assets into cash to satisfy immediate liabilities, these ratios help determine the company’s short-term solvency and its capacity to cover immediate financial obligations. The analysis of liquidity ratios is a critical aspect of assessing cash flow management, identifying potential liquidity risks, and gauging the ability to meet short-term debt obligations. 4. Debt utilization ratios, also referred to as leverage ratios, are indicators of the degree to which a company relies on debt financing in its capital structure. These ratios provide insights into the company’s debt levels, its ability to meet financial obligations, and the extent to which it can manage its debt load. Measuring debt utilization ratios is crucial in evaluating a company’s financial risk and determining its capacity to manage its debt effectively. By analyzing these ratios, valuable information can be obtained about the company’s overall financial health.
    IV. Time Value of Money
  3. To determine the present value of $10,000 after 5 years with an annual interest rate of 12% compounded annually, we can utilize the formula for present value of a future sum:
    PV = FV / (1 + r)^n
    Here, PV represents the present value, FV denotes the future value, r represents the interest rate, and n signifies the number of periods.
    Plugging in the given values:
    PV = $10,000 / (1 + 0.12)^5
    PV = $10,000 / (1.12)^5
    PV ≈ $6,425.98
    Hence, the approximate present value of $10,000 to be received after 5 years, with an interest rate of 12% compounded annually, is roughly $6,425.98.
  4. To calculate the present value of an annuity, we can use the formula for present value of an ordinary annuity:
    PV = PMT * [(1 – (1 + r)^(-n)) / r]
    In this formula, PV represents the present value, PMT represents the annuity payment, r represents the interest rate, and n represents the number of periods.
    Applying the provided values to the formula:

PV = $60,000 * [(1 – (1 + 0.04)^(-25)) / 0.04]
PV ≈ $834,794.38
Therefore, the approximate present value of the annuity for Mrs. Smith’s son, with annual payments of $60,000 for 25 years at a 4% annual interest rate, is around $834,794.38.

  1. To determine the future value of $1,000 per year for five years at a 6% rate of interest, we can use the formula for future value of an ordinary annuity:
    FV = PMT * [(1 + r)^n – 1] / r
    Here, FV represents the future value, PMT denotes the annuity payment, r represents the interest rate, and n signifies the number of periods.

Plugging in the given values into the formula:
FV = $1,000 * [(1 + 0.06)^5 – 1] / 0.06
FV ≈ $5,637.09
Hence, the approximate future value of $1,000 per year for five years at a 6% rate of interest is approximately $5,637.09.

  1. To calculate the future value of an annuity where $30,000 is contributed per year for 20 years at a 10% interest rate, we can use the formula for future value of an ordinary annuity:
    FV = PMT * [(1 + r)^n – 1] / r
    Here, FV represents the future value, PMT denotes the annuity payment, r represents the interest rate, and n signifies the number of periods.
    Applying the provided values to the formula:
    FV = $30,000 * [(1 + 0.10)^20 – 1] / 0.10
    FV ≈ $1,506,191.17
    Therefore, the approximate future value of the annuity with annual contributions of $30,000 for 20 years at a 10% interest rate is roughly $1,506,191.17.
    V. Extra Credit
    Over the past decade, Walmart has consistently maintained a strong financial standing, as evidenced by its impressive gross margin, operating margin, and net profit margin. The gross margin, or the difference between revenue and cost of goods sold, has increased steadily from 24.7% in 2012 to 26.6% in 2022. The operating margin, which measures the profitability of a company’s core business operations, has also seen an upward trend, reaching 5.5% in 2022 compared to 4.5% in 2012. The net profit margin, a crucial metric that reflects a company’s ability to generate profit after expenses, has remained consistently high for Walmart, standing at 1.82% as of April 30th, 2023. This is a testament to the company’s ability to operate efficiently and control costs while generating revenue. Walmart’s consistent financial performance over the years has made it a stalwart in the retail industry and a model for other companies to follow.
post 2023-08-15 15:14:56

After studying the project management process groups at the beginning of Chapter 3, estimate how much time and money you would spend in each of these process groups on your project. Assume you have one year and $100,000 to spend. Justify your estimates as to why you chose the percentages you did.

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If you won two free plane tickets, where would you go?

Before embarking on any project, it is essential to calculate the total time and money we have available to ensure necessary resources are allocated efficiently. Utilizing the project management process groups is a practical way to break down the project into manageable parts. For our project, with a duration of one year and a budget of $100,000, we estimate that the planning process group will consume about 30% of the total project time and money. This estimation needs to take into account detailed research and analysis, project scope definition, and the creation of the project schedule. Design, execution, control, and closing process groups have been assigned 25%, 30%, 10%, and 5%, respectively. Each process group’s estimation has been justified based on considerations such as the nature of the project, the allocated budget, and the experience and skill set of the project team. Effective planning and a comprehensive understanding of the project management process groups are integral components of setting up a project for success.

After studying the project management process groups at the beginning of Chapter 3, we have estimated our time and budget allocations for each group to successfully complete our project within one year and with $100,000. To justify our estimates, we have taken into account the specific requirements and constraints of our project. Our estimates for the initiating and planning process group are higher at 20% and 30% respectively, owing to the need for thorough research and planning for the project to run smoothly. The executing process group requires the highest percentage allocation at 35%, as most of the workload will be during this stage. The monitoring and controlling process group will take up approximately 10% of our budget and time allocation, as this stage is primarily focused on tracking the progress of the project and making necessary adjustments. Finally, we have estimated a 5% allocation for the closing process group, which will include finalizing and delivering the output, as well as conducting a project review. These allocations reflect our understanding of the specific needs and constraints of the project, ensuring optimal use of our resources for a successful outcome.

The five project management process groups are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. Initiating is the first process group, which involves the documentation of the project’s purpose and scope, identification of stakeholders and project goals, and initial approval to proceed with the project. Planning is the second process group, where the detailed project plan is created, including the budget, schedule, and risk management plan. The third process group is executing, where the project plan is put into action, and team members begin to work together towards the project goals. The fourth process group is monitoring and controlling, where the project’s progress is monitored and tracked, and corrective actions are taken when necessary to keep the project on track. Finally, the fifth process group is closing, where the project is completed, and final documentation is finalized, and the lessons learned from the project are documented.

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post 2023-07-26 04:56:29