A Critique of a Research of the Relationship between Napping and Abstraction in Language-Learning Infants


Rebecca and her colleagues (2006) experimented on the topic of Naps Promote Abstraction in Language-Learning Infants. The researcher claims that after sleep the memory and learning process effectively increases. An experimental study was designed on children who were in the speech and language learning stage. Participants were 15 months old male and female children. Different types of words were used with the first 3 and last 3 words of a thing without making their sense and meaning. There were two groups of participants. One group of children was allowed to sleep at their usual time and the other was a control group that couldn’t sleep after listening to the recorded sound by an instrument. Results indicated that the group who did not allow sleeping had a poor memory, and children who slept before memorization and memorized after sleep showed great learning ability and memory in language.


Stickgold and Walker (2005) claim that the learning process of humans increases after a nap. It boasts features of intelligence and overview. It brings clear results which can be seen in numerical form. A lot of research has been done on the nap system of children, but few only know and have knowledge about the blessings of sleep and their effect on intellectual abilities. Some of the research is based on sleep and after-sleep roles and their effect on the intellectual growth of children (Gertner et al., 2002). This pattern is also associated with the mental growth of the other organisms.

In this study, all of these researchers explain that sleep has a crucial role in human life and plays an important function in memory and learning. These were the research of children, and in adult research, the nap has an important role in learning by seeing like the nap of twenty-four hours (Mednick, Nakayama, & Stickgold, 2003). Nonetheless. It is lacking in the present literature that there are few pieces of evidence on adults’ sleep and their rule in learning and memory. Researchers should study the main topic by doing a comparison of before and after sleep effects on individuals. The sleep of young people is considered a booster for intelligence and reforms intellectual abilities (Walker et al., 2003).


This study explains and talks about several experiments which prove the main argument of the study. The children, whose age was fifteen months, were taken for the experiment; these children had low numbers of language signs but they could learn rapidly which was assessed by their other sensational process (Gerken, 2005). They provide the material to the children in a specific manner. Through these manners, they become familiar and learn the words. By this method, children start learning rapidly (Go´mez & Gerken, 2000; Saffran, 2003). The specific sequence was made of words by showing their first three and last three letters. They made two categories of groups. And each group has to listen to two types of sets of language and has to make the association among them. Both of these series were not related to each other. The first group of sounds has words like ‘people started and its final word is ‘juice; on the other hand, the second list of words starting with (pel predicted rud, and vot predicted JIC). They revealed that if the children have sleep time before and after learning then the process of gaining things becomes more clear and stays strong.

In the present study, the population was selected as little children who had the age of 15 months, which means that the population was taken who was in the process of learning the language skills. Children belong to an easily approachable society. Forty-eight children were taken at the start of the experiment. Which were further divided into three groups for conducting the study and applying all the plans. Their groups were named sleep groups, without sleep groups and the last one was treated as the control group. Participants in a group with no sleep were not taken away by sleep but they were set up at that time when sleep was not expected. On the other hand, the children who belong to the sleep group were designed at a time when sleep occurs in the middle of the experiment’s condition. The third group, which was treated as the control group was used to remove and minimize the chances of learning. That is, it is caused by sleep.

They also sleep before and after the experiment, but like other groups, they did not have a large group of language and words. Here some participants left the experiment due to the poor conditions and were not participating, which disturbed the overall environment of the experiment. So the remaining were 8 females and 8 males who were treated by the comparison of the experimental group. The experimental group has 15 people which also left due to some reasons.

Sleep was planned or an experiment was conducted on the individuals on that time when there is sleep time and students have to complete the first phase of listening to the words and after awaking and passing the four hours, they gave a test which means that they told to the examiner what they have memorized with a specific way. Every individual who cannot learn something cannot participate in the experiment anymore. In this way, the 8 participants from the no-sleep group were excluded as per the requirements of the experiment. If the participants sleep in the first phase of listening to the words, they are also considered excluded. Some of the parents interrupted the experiment, so the participants also left the study. Similarly, due to the sensitivity of the experiment and the poor availability of the children, all the children were assessed only in one day.

There was a form of the language tool kit in which pel-X-jic and vot- X-rud were found in one group and other groups A, and pel-X-rud and not-X-jic were found in the second group. There were two types of terms in the group, so two types of lists were used for the children. For the experimental group these words like Vadim, Kacey, user engle Cuomo log, a goble ta spu hitam deesha Ramey skier Benz gensic, fee nam lae ,,,,,,,,,,,,jeen, chila, Roosa, plates, blip, missing, celeb, bilbo, and waffle were used. For the control group, Vadim, Kacey, and the user were used. Some children can learn list A and some of them can learn the list b.

All the sounds were produced by the tape recorder in the female sound version. A list of group a and a list of group b were produced in clear pronunciations. There were little pauses in their words. The participants who had sleep and those who did not have sleep showed 24 words with accuracy. And they listen to these 48 words 5 times related.
This experiment was conducted in the homes of the participants. Each participant was treated at their home. The experimenter put a MiniMItter Act watch with a memory chip to record the activities of a child. Actigraphy is now considered a reliable source of recording the napping activities of individuals (Carskadon, 1995).

Parents were found to check the other activities of the children during their sleep to make a log record to compare them later. But less discrepancy can be seen in the records. Sounds were listened to by the participants at their houses for 15 minutes in the place where the child plays easily through the tape recorder in a female version. After this procedure, every participant was measured by the specific method of the head-turn technique (Kemler et al. (1995).

The child was assessed right after the 4 years and he was assessed by sitting in the lap of the mother. On both sides of the face, some lights were in an off mood. When the audio speaks the lights become moved slightly; this caught the attention of the individual. The individual listens to and responds to the sounds by sitting on her or his mother’s lap, and speakers take his sound and computer system thus recording their activities and behavior. There is also an observer who looks from the outside of the liberatory. Similarly, the whole procedure was applied to all the participants and everything was recorded and maintained for further study.


I agree with the findings of the study that there was no difference seen in the participants in language and gender. All the demographic data were equally divided and the results were interpreted accordingly. The participants who had no sleep period showed that they have knowledge of the familiar words which they have listened to, and they don’t focus on the unfamiliar words which they have not heard before. On the other hand, the individuals who have a sleep period show abstraction which means that they learn new words and memorize them and have some significant relationship of firstly, listening and secondly listened words.

We came to know that the first trial period was large as compared to the second time when the sounds were presented to the participants. This means that sleep has a greater effect on learning. But there was no significant difference between the sounds; those which were already heard by the children, and which they heard the first time. Overall results indicated that the group who did not allow sleeping had a poor memory, and children who sleep before memorization and memorized after sleep showed great learning ability and memory in the language.

I have found that experimental studies have high control, so possibly some results could be exaggerated or underestimated. In the same way, in the study design, artificial liberatory settings were arranged which can confuse the children and their poor attention can be a cause of the environment.

Many errors like extraneous variables have not been included and accepted in the study due to the highly organized and expensive study conducted. Furthermore, it cannot be generalized to all populations due to environmental, cultural, and familial limitations.

Although the permission was taken by the parents, there was an interruption from the parents, and the poor behavior of the children makes the study difficult. Same as We also come to know through experiments that many participants left the study within the study which has a bad impact. Also, the Child was assessed only once time, maybe that time, they faced some internal issues which the researcher cannot assess easily.

Suggestions: My point of view on the study

According to me, the experiment should be conducted at reliable places where the children can enjoy the experiment process so that we can get the best results from the research. I believe the findings of this research cannot be implanted in children who have an inconsistent pattern of sleep. So, this area should be explored: more aspects of language and speech should be explored.

We are supposed to think about gender differences and these should be found in the research. Same It would be explored more on cultural biases.

A comparative study should be conducted on the children with the trial of no sleep to make the comparison of the other group members. Add to this, a repeated measure design should be used to make the measurements more accurate.

Intellectual abilities should be considered along with memory and learning. Along with that, the age range should be increased as children learn more attractive and meaningful things as compared to nonmeaning data.


An experimental study was conducted on fifteen-month-old children to check the Relationship between Napping and Abstraction in Language-Learning Infants. The whole procedure of one day was conducted in the houses of children before their sleep time and after sleep. Participants were also assessed in liberatory settings by putting on lights and computer systems to assess them. Indicated that the group who did not allow sleeping had a poor memory, and children who sleep before memorization and showed results after sleep show great learning ability and memory in language. Although it was a unique study and is a beneficial exploration in the field of psychology, there still are some limitations and suggestions to improve the study and make things more profound for future learners and researchers.






Gómez, R. L., Bootzin, R. R., & Nadel, L. (2006). Naps Promote Abstraction in Language-Learning Infants. Psychological Science, 17(8), 670–674.
Saffran, J. (2003). Statistical language learning: Mechanisms and constraints. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 110– 114
Walker, M., Brakefield, T., Hobson, J., & Stickgold, R. (2003). Dissoand language acquisition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 178– cable stages of human memory consolidation and reconsolidation.
2022-09-07 14:46:53

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